Android联系人增删改查

YuriyShea 2022年09月23日 122次浏览

添加联系人

创建联系人数据

通过ContentValues创建联系人数据,联系人数据包括名字、昵称、头像、备注、电话号码、传真号码、地址、公司及职位、邮箱、网站等信息,代码如下:

/**
 * 获取联系人数据
 */
private fun getContactData(rawContactId: Long): ContactData {
    val data = ArrayList<ContentValues>()

    // 名字
    val nameValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    nameValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    val givenName = "given"
    nameValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.GIVEN_NAME, givenName)
    val middleName = "middle"
    nameValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.MIDDLE_NAME, middleName)
    val familyName = "family"
    nameValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.FAMILY_NAME, familyName)
    val name = "$givenName $middleName $familyName"
    nameValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.DISPLAY_NAME, name)
    data.add(nameValues)

    // 昵称
    val nickNameValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    nickNameValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Nickname.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Nickname.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    val nickName = "nickName"
    nickNameValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Nickname.NAME, nickName)
    data.add(nickNameValues)

    // 头像
    val photoValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    photoValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Photo.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Photo.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    photoValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Photo.PHOTO,
        try {
            assets.open("photo.jpg")
        } catch (e: Exception) {
            e.printStackTrace()
            null
        }?.readBytes()
    )
    data.add(photoValues)

    // 备注
    val remarkValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    remarkValues.put(
        ContactsContract.Contacts.Data.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Note.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    val remark = "your remark"
    remarkValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Note.NOTE, remark)
    data.add(remarkValues)

    // 电话号码
    val mobilePhoneNumberValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    mobilePhoneNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.Contacts.Data.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    mobilePhoneNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE_MOBILE
    )
    val mobilePhoneNumber = "13999999999"
    mobilePhoneNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.NUMBER,
        mobilePhoneNumber
    )
    data.add(mobilePhoneNumberValues)

    // 工作传真号码
    val workFaxNumberValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    workFaxNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.Contacts.Data.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    workFaxNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE_FAX_WORK
    )
    val workFaxNumber = "66669999999"
    workFaxNumberValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.NUMBER, workFaxNumber)
    data.add(workFaxNumberValues)

    // 工作电话号码
    val workPhoneNumberValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    workPhoneNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.Contacts.Data.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    workPhoneNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE_WORK
    )
    val workPhoneNumber = "6666666666"
    workPhoneNumberValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.NUMBER, workPhoneNumber)
    data.add(workPhoneNumberValues)

    // 公司电话号码
    val hostNumberValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    hostNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.Contacts.Data.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    hostNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE_COMPANY_MAIN
    )
    val hostNumber = "99999999999"
    hostNumberValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.NUMBER, hostNumber)
    data.add(hostNumberValues)

    // 住宅传真号码
    val homeFaxNumberValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    homeFaxNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.Contacts.Data.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    homeFaxNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE_FAX_HOME
    )
    val homeFaxNumber = "99996666666"
    homeFaxNumberValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.NUMBER, homeFaxNumber)
    data.add(homeFaxNumberValues)

    // 住宅电话号码
    val homePhoneNumberValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    homePhoneNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.Contacts.Data.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    homePhoneNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.TYPE_HOME
    )
    val homePhoneNumber = "99998888888"
    homePhoneNumberValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Phone.NUMBER, homePhoneNumber)
    data.add(homePhoneNumberValues)

    // 微信号
    val weChatNumberValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    weChatNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Im.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Im.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    weChatNumberValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Im.PROTOCOL,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Im.PROTOCOL_CUSTOM
    )
    weChatNumberValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Im.CUSTOM_PROTOCOL, "WeChat")
    val weChatNumber = "wx66666666"
    weChatNumberValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Im.DATA, weChatNumber)
    data.add(weChatNumberValues)

    // 地址
    val addressValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    addressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    addressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.TYPE_OTHER
    )
    val addressCountry = "addressCountry"
    addressValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.COUNTRY, addressCountry)
    val addressState = "addressState"
    addressValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.REGION, addressState)
    val addressCity = "addressCity"
    addressValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.CITY, addressCity)
    val addressStreet = "addressStreet"
    addressValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.STREET, addressStreet)
    val addressPostalCode = "addressPostalCode"
    addressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.POSTCODE,
        addressPostalCode
    )
    addressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.FORMATTED_ADDRESS,
        "$addressStreet $addressCity $addressState $addressCountry $addressPostalCode"
    )
    data.add(addressValues)

    // 工作地址
    val workAddressValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    workAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    workAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.TYPE_WORK
    )
    val workAddressCountry = "workAddressCountry"
    workAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.COUNTRY,
        workAddressCountry
    )
    val workAddressState = "workAddressState"
    workAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.REGION,
        workAddressState
    )
    val workAddressCity = "workAddressCity"
    workAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.CITY,
        workAddressCity
    )
    val workAddressStreet = "workAddressStreet"
    workAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.STREET,
        workAddressStreet
    )
    val workAddressPostalCode = "workAddressPostalCode"
    workAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.POSTCODE,
        workAddressPostalCode
    )
    workAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.FORMATTED_ADDRESS,
        "$workAddressStreet $workAddressCity $workAddressState $workAddressCountry $workAddressPostalCode"
    )
    data.add(workAddressValues)

    // 住宅地址
    val homeAddressValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    homeAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    homeAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.TYPE_HOME
    )
    val homeAddressCountry = "homeAddressCountry"
    homeAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.COUNTRY,
        homeAddressCountry
    )
    val homeAddressState = "homeAddressState"
    homeAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.REGION,
        homeAddressState
    )
    val homeAddressCity = "homeAddressCity"
    homeAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.CITY,
        homeAddressCity
    )
    val homeAddressStreet = "homeAddressStreet"
    homeAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.STREET,
        homeAddressStreet
    )
    val homeAddressPostalCode = "homeAddressPostalCode"
    homeAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.POSTCODE,
        homeAddressPostalCode
    )
    homeAddressValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredPostal.FORMATTED_ADDRESS,
        "$homeAddressStreet $homeAddressCity $homeAddressState $homeAddressCountry $homeAddressPostalCode"
    )
    data.add(homeAddressValues)

    // 公司及职位
    val organizationValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    organizationValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Organization.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Organization.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    organizationValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Organization.TYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Organization.TYPE_WORK
    )
    val organization = "organization"
    organizationValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Organization.COMPANY, organization)
    val title = "title"
    organizationValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Organization.TITLE, title)
    data.add(organizationValues)

    // 邮箱
    val emailValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    emailValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Email.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Email.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    val email = "yuriyshea@163.com"
    emailValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Email.ADDRESS, email)
    data.add(emailValues)

    // 网站
    val urlValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    urlValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Website.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Website.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    val url = "https://yuriyshea.com"
    urlValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.Website.URL, url)
    data.add(urlValues)

    return ContactData(rawContactId, name, data)
}

以上方法返回的是ContactData对象,ContactData是对联系人数据的包装类,代码如下:

/**
 * 联系人信息
 * @param rawContactId 联系人raw_contact_id
 * @param name 名字
 * @param data 其它数据
 */
data class ContactData(
    val rawContactId: Long,
    val name: String,
    val data: ArrayList<ContentValues>
)

拿到创建好的联系人数据之后,我们就可以开始创建联系人了。创建联系人有2中不同的方式,一种是跳转到系统添加联系人的页面,并将联系人数据传递给该页面,通过页面操作完成联系人的添加,另一种是通过ContentResolver直接向系统联系人数据库表中写入数据。

通过系统联系人页面添加

通过Intent跳转到系统创建联系人的页面,并将联系人数据传递到该页面,代码如下:

/**
 * 跳转系统联系人界面添加新的联系人
 */
private fun addContactByIntent() {
    val intent = Intent(Intent.ACTION_INSERT, ContactsContract.Contacts.CONTENT_URI)
    // 先插入一条空的ContentValues(),用以获取raw_contact_id
    val rawContactUri =
        contentResolver.insert(ContactsContract.RawContacts.CONTENT_URI, ContentValues())
            ?: return
    val rawContactId = ContentUris.parseId(rawContactUri)
    currentContactData = getContactData(rawContactId).apply {
        intent.putExtra(ContactsContract.Intents.Insert.NAME, name)
        intent.putParcelableArrayListExtra(ContactsContract.Intents.Insert.DATA, data)
    }
    try {
        startActivity(intent)
    } catch (e: Throwable) {
        e.printStackTrace()
    }
} 

在系统创建联系人的页面,我们可以继续编辑一些信息,编辑好之后点击保存即可。

直接添加

通过ContentResolver可以直接向联系人数据库表写入联系人数据,代码如下:

/**
 * 直接添加新的联系人
 * 需要android.permission.WRITE_CONTACTS权限
 */
private fun addContactDirectly() {
    // 先插入一条空的ContentValues(),用以获取raw_contact_id
    val rawContactUri =
        contentResolver.insert(ContactsContract.RawContacts.CONTENT_URI, ContentValues())
            ?: return
    val rawContactId = ContentUris.parseId(rawContactUri)
    val contactData = getContactData(rawContactId)
    currentContactData = contactData
    contentResolver.bulkInsert(
        ContactsContract.Data.CONTENT_URI,
        contactData.data.toTypedArray()
    )
    Toast.makeText(this, "添加成功", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
}

通过这种方式添加联系人,需要注意的地方有:

  1. 需要应用获取写联系人数据的权限,即android.permission.WRITE_CONTACTS,否则会报如下错误:
java.lang.SecurityException: Permission Denial: opening provider com.android.providers.contacts.ContactsProvider2 from ProcessRecord{bef57ba 27869:com.xy.android/u0a2623} (pid=27869, uid=12623) requires android.permission.READ_CONTACTS or android.permission.WRITE_CONTACTS
  1. 创建ContentValues对象时,必须设置ContactsContract.Data.RAW_CONTACT_ID字段的值,否则会报如下错误:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: raw_contact_id is required
    at android.database.DatabaseUtils.readExceptionFromParcel(DatabaseUtils.java:170)
    at android.database.DatabaseUtils.readExceptionFromParcel(DatabaseUtils.java:140)
    at android.content.ContentProviderProxy.bulkInsert(ContentProviderNative.java:503)
    at android.content.ContentResolver.bulkInsert(ContentResolver.java:1935)

修改联系人

和创建联系人一样,修改联系人也有2中不同的方式,一种是将联系人数据传递给系统选择联系人的页面,在该页面选择要修改的联系人之后,会进一步跳转到系统编辑联系人页面,通过页面操作完成联系人的修改,另一种是通过ContentResolver直接修改系统联系人数据库表中的数据。

通过系统联系人页面修改

通过Intent跳转到系统选择联系人的页面,选择联系人之后再跳转到编辑联系人页面,代码如下:

/**
 * 跳转系统联系人界面更新现有联系人
 */
private fun updateContactByIntent() {
    val intent = Intent(Intent.ACTION_INSERT_OR_EDIT)
        .setType(ContactsContract.Contacts.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE)
    val rawContactId = currentContactData?.rawContactId
    if (rawContactId == null) {
        Toast.makeText(this, "无当前联系人信息,请先创建联系人", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
        return
    }
    currentContactData = getContactData(rawContactId).apply {
        intent.putExtra(ContactsContract.Intents.Insert.NAME, name)
        intent.putParcelableArrayListExtra(ContactsContract.Intents.Insert.DATA, data)
    }
    try {
        if (intent.resolveActivity(packageManager) != null) {
            startActivity(intent)
        }
    } catch (e: Throwable) {
        e.printStackTrace()
    }
}

直接修改

通过ContentResolver可以直接更新联系人数据库表中的数据,代码如下:

/**
 * 直接更新现有联系人
 * 需要android.permission.WRITE_CONTACTS权限
 */
private fun updateContactDirectly() {
    val rawContactId = currentContactData?.rawContactId
    if (rawContactId == null) {
        Toast.makeText(this, "无当前联系人信息,请先创建联系人", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
        return
    }

    // 名字
    val nameValues = generateContentValues(rawContactId)
    nameValues.put(
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.MIMETYPE,
        ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
    )
    val random = Random.nextInt(1000)
    val givenName = "given$random"
    nameValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.GIVEN_NAME, givenName)
    val middleName = "middle$random"
    nameValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.MIDDLE_NAME, middleName)
    val familyName = "family$random"
    nameValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.FAMILY_NAME, familyName)
    val name = "$givenName $middleName $familyName"
    nameValues.put(ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.DISPLAY_NAME, name)

    contentResolver.update(
        ContactsContract.Data.CONTENT_URI,
        nameValues,
        "${ContactsContract.Data.RAW_CONTACT_ID}=? and ${ContactsContract.Data.MIMETYPE}=?",
        arrayOf(
            rawContactId.toString(),
            ContactsContract.CommonDataKinds.StructuredName.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE,
        )
    )
    Toast.makeText(this, "更新成功", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
}

同样的,通过这种方式更新联系人,需要写联系人数据的权限(android.permission.WRITE_CONTACTS)。

删除联系人

通过ContentResolver删除联系人数据库表中的数据,代码如下:

/**
 * 删除联系人
 */
private fun deleteContactDirectly() {
    val rawContactId = currentContactData?.rawContactId
    if (rawContactId == null) {
        Toast.makeText(this, "无当前联系人信息,请先创建联系人", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
        return
    }
    contentResolver.delete(
        ContactsContract.Data.CONTENT_URI, "${ContactsContract.Data.RAW_CONTACT_ID}=?",
        arrayOf(rawContactId.toString())
    )
    currentContactData = null
    Toast.makeText(this, "删除成功", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
}

通过ContentResolver删除联系人数据也需要写联系人数据的权限(android.permission.WRITE_CONTACTS)。

查找联系人

通过ContentResolver查找联系人数据库表中的数据,代码如下:

/**
 * 查找联系人
 * 需要android.permission.READ_CONTACTS权限
 */
private fun queryContact() {
    val rawContactId = currentContactData?.rawContactId
    if (rawContactId == null) {
        Toast.makeText(this, "无当前联系人信息,请先创建联系人", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
        return
    }
    val cursor = contentResolver.query(
        ContactsContract.Data.CONTENT_URI,
        null,
        "${ContactsContract.Data.RAW_CONTACT_ID}=?",
        arrayOf(rawContactId.toString()),
        null
    )
    if (cursor == null) {
        Toast.makeText(this, "查找联系人失败", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
    } else {
        cursor.moveToFirst()
        val displayName = cursor.getString(76)
        Toast.makeText(this, "查找联系人成功,displayName: $displayName", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT)
            .show()
    }
    cursor?.close()
}

通过ContentResolver查找联系人需要读联系人数据的权限(android.permission.READ_CONTACTS)。